Minggu, 29 Juli 2012

Daftar Obat Yang Aman untuk Ibu Hamil & Menyusui

pernah kita mendegar bahwa bayi lahir tidak normal atau cacat?
banyak penyebab bayi lahir tidak normal salah satunya yaitu obat-obat yang tidak aman yang dikonsumsi oleh ibu pada waktu sedang mengandung., berikut daftar obat yang aman maupun tidak aman untuk ibu hamil dan menyusui

Kelompok Analgetik,  NSAIDS,  Obat Batuk dan Pilek,
Anti Alergi dan Asma, Anestesi
 
Obat untuk Penghilang Rasa Sakit (Pain Killer)
Nama Obat
AAP approved?*
Kategori Risiko Kehamilan**
Risiko Menyusui**
Notes
Acetaminophen  (Tylenol)
Approved
B
L1

Aspirin
Caution
C (1st, 2nd trim.)
D (3rd trim.)
L3
Azapropazone  (Rheumox)
Approved

-
L2

Butalbital (Fioricet, Fiorinal, Bancap, Two-dyne)
NR
D
L3
Butorphanol  (Stadol)
Approved
B (1st, 2nd trim.)
D (3rd trim.)
L3

Celecoxib (Celebrex))
NR
C
L2

Codeine (in Tylenol #3, #4)
Approved
C
L3
Colchicine
Approved
D
L4

Diclofenac (Cataflam, Voltaren)
NR
B
L2

Fentanyl  (Sublimaze)
Approved
B
L2

Flurbiprofen (Ansaid, Froben, Ocufen)
NR
B (1st, 2nd trim.)
C (3rd trim.)
L2

Hydrocodone (Lortab, Vicodin)
NR
B
L3
Hydromorphone (Dilaudid)
NR
C
L3
Ibuprofen (Advil, Nuprin, Motrin, Pediaprofen)
Approved
B (1st, 2nd trim.)
D (3rd trim.)
L1

Indomethacin (Indocin)
Approved
B (1st, 2nd trim.)
D (3rd trim.)
L3

Ketorolac (Toradol, Acular)
Approved
B (1st, 2nd trim.)
D (3rd trim.)
L2

Meperidine (Demerol)
Approved
B
L2;
L3 early postpartum
Methadone (Dolophine)
Approved
B
L3
Morphine (Duramorph, Infumorph, Epimorph, MS Contin)
Approved
B
L3
Nalbuphine (Nubain)
NR
B
L2

Naproxen (Anaprox, Naprosyn, Naproxen, Aleve)
Approved
B
L3;
L4 for chronic use
Nefopam (Acupan)
Approved
-
NR

Oxycodone (Tylox, Percodan,Oxycontin, Roxicet, Endocet, Roxiprin, Percocet)
NR
B
L3
Pentosan polysulfate (Elmiron)
NR
B
L2

Piroxicam (Feldene)
Approved
B
L2

Propoxyphene (Darvocet N, Propacet, Darvon)
Approved
C
L2
Rofecoxib (Vioxx)
Secobarbital (Seconal)
Approved
D
L3
Tolmetin (Tolectin)
Approved
C
L3

Tramadol HCL (Ultram, Ultracet)
NR
C
L3
Valdecoxib  (Bextra)
*  Per the AAP Policy Statement The Transfer of Drugs and Other Chemicals Into Human Milk, revised September 2001.
** Per Medications’ and Mothers’ Milk by Thomas Hale, PhD (2004 edition).
 Lactation Risk Categories 
 Pregnancy Risk Categories 
  • L1 (safest)
  • L2 (safer)
  • L3 (moderately safe)
  • L4 (possibly hazardous)
  • L5 (contraindicated)
  • A (controlled studies show no risk)
  • B (no evidence of risk in humans)
  • C (risk cannot be ruled out)
  • D (positive evidence of risk)
  • X (contraindicated in pregnancy)
NR: Not Reviewed. This drug has not yet been reviewed by Hale.
  1. Aspirin use is discouraged in children and nursing mothers due to the risk of Reye’s syndrome and internal bleeding.
  2. Fioricet (Fiorinal, Bancap, Two-dyne) contains acetaminaphen or asprin, caffeine, and butalbital. Per Hale, baby should be observed for sedation.
  3. Hale suggests weakened or premature infants be observed for sedation and apnea.
  4. Hale suggests newborns be observed for sedation, apnea, constipation.
  5. Per Hale, use of frequent, higher dose may result in infant sedation.
  6. Per Hale, Meperidine use during labor or early postpartum has been associated with sedation, poor sucking reflex, and neurobehavioral delay in infants.
  7. Per Hale, observe infant for sedation, respiratory depression, addiction, withdrawal syndrome.
  8. Per Hale, higher doses may result in infant sedation.
  9. Per Hale, should be used with caution due to its long half-life and its effect on baby’s cardiovascular system, kidneys and GI tract; short-term, infrequent or occasional use is not necessarily incompatible with breastfeeding.
  10. Roxicet, Endocet, Roxiprin, Percocet also contain acetaminophen. Per Hale, observe infant for sedation.
  11. Per Hale, observe infant for sedation.
  12. Per Hale, observe infant for GI cramping, distress, diarrhea.
  13. Per Hale, observe infant for sedation.
  14. Per Hale, observe infant for sedation.
     Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory analgesics (NSAIDs) [more]
Nama Generik
Nama Dagang
AAP approved?*
Kategori Risiko Kehamilan**
Risiko Menyusui**
Azapropazone (apazone) Rheumox
Approved
-
L2
Dipyrone (banned in the US & UK) -
Approved
-
NR
Flufenamic acid -
Approved
-
NR
Ibuprofen Advil, Nuprin, Motrin, Pediaprofin
Approved
B (1st, 2nd trim.)
D (3rd trim.)
L1
Indomethacin Indocin
Approved
B (1st, 2nd trim.)
D (3rd trim.)
L3
Ketorolac Toradol, Acular
Approved
B (1st, 2nd trim.)
D (3rd trim.)
L2
Mefenamic acid Ponstan, Ponstel
Approved
-
NR
Naproxen Anaprox, Naprosyn, Naproxen, Aleve
Approved
B
L3
L4 (for chronic use)
Phenylbutazone Butazolidine
Approved
-
NR
Piroxicam Feldene
Approved
B
L2
Suprofen Profenal
Approved
-
NR
Tolmetin Tolectin
Approved
C
L3
    Steroid
Methylprednisolone
high dosage methylprednisolone]
Solu-Medrol, Depo-Medrol, Medrol
Approved
C
L2
Prednisolone -
Approved
C
L2
Prednisone Deltasone, Meticorten, Orasone
Approved
C
L2
Obat Asma
Dyphylline Dilor, Lufyllin, Dyphylline
Approved
C
L3
Terbutaline Bricanyl, Brethine
Approved
B
L2
Theophylline Aminophylline, Quibron, Theo-Dur
Approved
C
L3
     Analgetik Narkotik  [more]
Butorphanol Stadol
Approved
B (1st, 2nd trim.)
D (3rd trim.)
L3
Codeine Tylenol #3, #4
Approved
C
L3
Fentanyl Sublimaze
Approved
B
L2
Meperidine Demerol
Approved
B
L2
L3 (if used early postpartum)
Methadone Dolophine
Approved
B
L3
Morphine Morphine
Approved
B
L3
Propoxyphene Darvocet N, Propacet, Darvon
Approved
C
L2

Obat Batuk
Nama Obat
AAP approved?*
Risiko Menyusui**
Codeine
yes
L3 (moderately safe)
Dextromethorphan
not reviewed
L1 (safest)
Guaifenesin
not reviewed
L2 (safer)
Dekongestan (Obat Pilek)
Nama Obat
AAP approved?*
Risiko Menyusui**
Phenylephrine
not reviewed
L3 (moderately safe)
Pseudoephedrine (Sudafed, Actifed)
yes
L3 (moderately safe) for acute use
L4 (possibly hazardous) for chronic use due to potential for decreasing milk supply
*  Per the AAP Policy Statement The Transfer of Drugs and Other Chemicals Into Human Milk, revised September 2001.
** Per Medications’ and Mothers’ Milk by Thomas Hale, PhD (2006 edition)
Nasal Sprays (Spray Hidung)
Nama Obat
AAP
approved?*
Risiko Menyusui**
Beclomethasone (Vanceril, Beclovent, Beconase, Vancenase)
not reviewed
L2 (safer)
Cromlyn sodium (Nasalcrom)
not reviewed
L1 (safest)
Fluticasone (Flonase)
not reviewed
L3 (moderately safe)
Mometasone (Nasonex)
not reviewed
L3 (moderately safe)
Phenylephrine (in some forms of Sinex and Neo-Synephrine)
not reviewed
L3 (moderately safe)
Triamcinolone Acetonide (Nasacort)
not reviewed
L3 (moderately safe)
Antihistamin (Anti Alergi)
Nama Obat
AAP
approved?*
Risiko Menyusui**
Brompheniramine
not reviewed
L3 (moderately safe)
Chlorpheniramine (Chlor-Trimeton) CTM
not reviewed
L3 (moderately safe)
Cetirizine (Zyrtec)
not reviewed
L2 (safer)
Dexbrompheniramine maleate
with d-isoephedrine
yes
not reviewed
Diphenhydramine (Benadryl)
not reviewed
L2 (safer)
Doxylamine
not reviewed
L4 (possibly hazardous)
Fexofenadine (Allegra)
yes
L3 (moderately safe)
Loratadine (Claritin)
yes
L2 (safer)
Terfenadine (Seldane)
yes
not reviewed
Triprolidine (Actidil, Actifed)
yes
L1 (safest)
*  Per the AAP Policy Statement The Transfer of Drugs and Other Chemicals Into Human Milk, revised September 2001.
** Per Medications’ and Mothers’ Milk by Thomas Hale, PhD (2002 edition)

2 komentar:

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apa obat anemia yang aman untuk di berikan pada ibu hamil?

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